Showing posts with label TGF alpha. Show all posts
Showing posts with label TGF alpha. Show all posts

Thursday, October 31, 2013


Nothing is simple but yet as determinant as an Adapter gene.
The cell continues to amaze scientists.
When a stimulant attaches to a receptor, the 2, stimulant and receptor, enter the cell in some cases, detaching from the membrane and enter the cell.  Most of the time there is a triggering of main pathways such as the RAS, but sometimes, at the site of attachment, the raw edges of the membrane are not healing and wage their own it is the focal Adhesion kinases that are going to war.  Now, that war is not necessarily random.  Depending on the nature of the stimulant and receptor involved, the FAK can turn to a Gerb2, Lyn or Flyn with a totally new orientation in the metabolism of the cell.  Sometimes the adapter is simply a b-cell linker or it is a T-cell linker and the cell will follow that path or attract these different cells.  It may use RUS1 to block the excited RAS that we spoke about or orient the cell to Rho in order to exacerbate metastasis.  
These linkers are a way to control differentiation, but when erratic, they could compromise the host!  Certain genes are destined to help many proteins such as a portion of an Antibody, imagine them wrongly linked to some other gene leading to unwarranted  multiplication! Things are set for hematologic malignancies!

Preliminary impression:
- Attachment to Lyn- B cell differentiation (some) and if Gerb2 involved, T cell differentiation definitely if the stimulant is TGF alpha!
Flyn- well may be muscle dystrophy, of some form.
Attachment to TBS - mental retardation
Lck-depression such as seen with chronic autoimmune disease (locus Coereleus)

Watch your Adaptor genes carefully!  Otherwise things are going in a direction you may not wish!

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Genetic basis of Autism

The notion that an inflammatory process such as the one induced by an immunization may contribute to children's mental retardation or Autism has fundamental truth when it comes to gene pathways. Indeed, during an acute inflammatory insult, Macrophages that are called to the theater will liberate several cytokines which include TGF alpha.  This cytokine will bind to EGFR receptors while other cytokines induced by the inflammatory process will bind their relevant receptors.  Internalization of these receptors will leave deep edges at the membrane, activating the Focal adhesion molecules of Kinase (FAK ).  The first known gene to react with the FAK gene is the Tuberous sclerosis gene which is known to lead to Autism.  In a forming or developing brain, certain isoforms of this gene may predispose some children to develop autism.   The crux of the problem is to determine which inflammatory process (immunization or other processes) is at the source of the problem!

PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTK2 gene.[2] PTK2 is a focal adhesion-associated protein kinase involved in cellular adhesion (how cells stick to each other and their surroundings) and spreading processes (how cells move around).[3] It has been shown that when FAK was blocked, breast cancer cells became less metastatic due to decreased mobility.[4]

 PTK2 has been shown to interact with TSC2, (22 wikipedia)

 Tuberin also known as tuberous sclerosis 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TSC2 gene.
 About 50% of people with TSC have learning difficulties ranging from mild to significant,[2] and studies have reported that between 25% and 61% of affected individuals meet the diagnostic criteria for autism, with an even higher proportion showing features of a broader pervasive developmental disorder.[3] A 2008 study reported self-injurious behavior in 10% of people with TSC.[4] Other conditions, such as ADHD, aggression, behavioral outbursts and OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder) can also occur. Lower IQ is associated with more brain involvement on MRI.(wikipedia)