Friday, November 22, 2013

The Hedgehog, Ptch1, AND the Gli zinc-finger transcription factors

If there is an example where GENE INTERFERENCE could have a meaningful impact, it is in this pathway like a deluge of gene activations.  The impact could extend from Basal cell to bladder cancers to Gliomas!

"PTCH1 is a member of the patched gene family and is the receptor for sonic hedgehog, a secreted molecule implicated in the formation of embryonic structures and in tumorigenesis. This gene functions as a tumor suppressor. The PTCH1 gene product, is a transmembrane protein that suppresses the release of another protein called smoothened, and when sonic hedgheog binds PTCH1, smoothened is released and signals cell proliferation." wikipedia.

POLIZIO ET AL
 The vertebrate Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has essential functions during development and tissue homeostasis in normal physiology, and its dysregulation is a common theme in cancer. The Hh ligands (Sonic Hh, Indian Hh, and Desert Hh) bind to the receptors Patched1 and Patched2, resulting in inhibition of their repressive effect on Smoothened (Smo). Smo is a seven-transmembrane protein, which was only recently shown to function as a G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) with specificity toward the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gi. In addition to activating Gi, Smo signals through its C-terminal tail to inhibit Suppressor of Fused, resulting in stabilization and activation of the Gli family of transcription factors, which execute a transcriptional response to so-called "canonical Hh signaling."

WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT ZINC-FINGER YOU KNOW YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT HISTONE MODULATION AND DIRECT DNA INTERACTION, ALL OCCURING MOSTLY THE EPIGENETIC ZONE MOSTLY!  THEREFORE THIS COULD EFFECT EVEN THE LEUKEMIAS!
THE CRBCM IS TAKING A CLOSER LOOK!

"Gli regulation by the opposing activities of Fused and Suppressor of Fused

Maximilien Murone1,2ET AL!
Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are secreted factors that control cell proliferation and cell-fate specification1. Hh signalling is mediated in vertebrates by the Gli zinc-finger transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3) and in Drosophila by the Gli homologue Cubitus interruptus"

OTHER GENES IMPLICATED!

PTCH1 gene
WNT3A
IRF6
GLI
TGF-beta
TrkC: Neurotropin -Receptor

AND THE DANCE OF GENES CONTINUE!
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