Wednesday, March 6, 2013

SUPPRESSION OF NF-kB IS ONE OF THE DOMINANT EVENT IN ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA,

As we explore the major genes involved in Acute Myeloid leukemia, we quickly realize that the main initiating event is located in the Core binding factors or complex proteins located at the Histone-DNA.  At this level we already uncovered that the nature of molecule interacting and  involved are considerably important, and fundamentally different when you speak about Hematological neoplasm versus solid tumor.
Globally, they appear to be several levels of action:

1.  Nature of components of Histone (H1A, H2A etc..) as cover of DNA. 
2.  Complex involved in Histone remodeling  (H1Ax)
3.  Portion Alpha-subunit of protein complexes attached to the DNA to control its expression, and here we find the RUNX which control Hematologic differentiation
4. Portion of Alpha subunit that actually ensure just clear attachment to DNA so that the Histones do not run in the nuclear  solution.  But be careful in fact most of the time if not always, the place of attachment of histone is not random and varies according to nature of tissue involved.  That is Histones attachment contribute to gene silencing and tissue differentiation.
5. Then there Beta subunits which send tentacles dealing with
    5.1-pure Histone Deacyl transferase activity
    5-2- DNA uncoiling and coiling
    5.3- Interaction with Regulators
    5.4-Interactions with cytoplasmic  signal trasductions (MAPK, FOS/c-JUNK, RAS,PI1K ,VEGF)
    5.5-output back to the cytoplasm to inhibit or activate regulators of signal transduction.  The control of signal transduction pathways is done through enzymes production but through activation of switches (E3, SOS) and through control of Ubiquitination and the MDM2
   5.6- DNA replication controlled through P53, and check-point control molecules.
    5.7-signal to Mitochondria, the Ribosome AND AT C-MYC
  etc. (Transcription factors)
The Centrosome have a DNA attachment portion and an endonucleases portion and some endonucleases find their way to  this area of histone-DNA.

Suffice is to say that in AML, the RUNX is involved to ensure Hematologic differentiation, Many regulators are involved, but suppression of the NF-kB and therefore suppression of the TGF is an significant find!
One now speculate as to why it is so.  AND WITHOUT HESITATION, ONE CONCLUDE THAT IT IS BECAUSE AML DOES NOT NEED TO FORM A MASS!  THE SUPPRESSION OF TGF CAN BE INSUFFICIENT HOWEVER, AND A GRANULOCYTIC SARCOMA IS CREATED BUT THIS IS RARE.

(CLEARLY SOME OF THE CONCEPTS PRESENTED HAVE STILL TO BE FULLY VISITED BY RESEARCHER AND READERS-READ MORE TO ESTABLISH THIS IS SO!)

IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT WHILE IN THE STRUGGLE IS AT THE RUNX IN AML, IN BLADDER CANCER THE TGF IS IS FULL SWING, DNA REPAIR IS IN FULL SWING, BUT ALSO EVENTS AT THE HISTONE MODULATION AS ALSO IN FULL SWING

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