Thursday, May 23, 2013

GENES IN PENILE CANCER

1. KAI-1
BEAUTIFULLY SUMMARIZED BY
"KAI-1/CD82, the molecule and clinical implication in cancer and cancer metastasis.

Source

Department of Surgery, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.

Abstract

CD82, also known as KAI-1, structurally belongs to tetraspanin family while categorised as metastasis suppressor gene on functional grounds. KAI1/CD82 is localized on cell membrane and form interactions with other tetraspanins, integrins and chemokines which are respectively responsible for cell migration, adhesion and signalling. In recent years apart from its significant involvement in the suppression of secondary tumours it has also been observed that KAI1/CD82 plays a vital role in virus binding and its entry inside the cell. Decreased expression of KAI1/CD82 molecule results in aggravating cancer progression. Altered expression levels of KAI1/CD82 molecule in different types of human cancer have been implicated as having prognostic value and linking to the long term survival of the patients. Increased level of KAI1/CD82 also results in the suppression of secondary tumour growth. Increased expression of this molecule results in reduced cell invasion and cell migration due to endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). Thus,"

SUPPRESSOR OF METASTASIS
SUPPRESSOR OF SECONDARY TUMORS

ONDITSOVA ET AL  ADDED
" We show here that the CD82/KAI-1 tetraspanin is directly associated with the EGF receptor (EGFR), and that ectopic expression of CD82/KAI-1 in epithelial cells specifically suppresses EGF-induced lamellipodial extensions and cell migration. In cells expressing CD82/KAI-1, the initial activation of EGFR is not affected, but subsequent desensitization of EGF-induced signaling occurs more rapidly. This attenuation is correlated with an increased rate of receptor endocytosis. These results identify CD82/KAI-1 as a new regulator of EGF-induced signaling and show that the association of EGFR with the tetraspanin is critical in EGFR desensitization."

TAKAHASHI ET AL "
  CD82-c-Met complex inhibits HGF-induced cancer cell migration! OR
Signaling adapter proteins for c-Met, such as Grb2 and p85, exhibited reduced association with c-Met in cells that ectopically expressed CD82. These results indicate that the CD82-c-Met complex inhibits HGF-induced cancer cell migration by the inactivation of small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family via c-Met adapter proteins."

TODESHINI ET AL

Ganglioside GM2, but not GM3 or globoside, interacted specifically with tetraspanin CD82, and such a complex inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced activation of Met tyrosine kinase in a dose-dependent manner.

SI ET AL

 "These inhibitory effects are enhanced when GM3 or GM2 are in complex with specific tetraspanins (TSPs) (CD9, CD81, CD82). Processes (i)-(iii) occur through specific organization of GSLs with key molecules (TSPs, caveolins, GFRs, integrins) in the glycosynaptic microdomain. Some of these processes are shared with epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by TGFbeta or under hypoxia, particularly that associated with cancer progression."
" this gene has been shown to be downregulated in tumor progression of human cancers and can be activated by p53 through a consensus binding sequence in the promoter. Its expression and that of p53 are strongly correlated, and the loss of expression of these two proteins is associated with poor survival for prostate cancer patients"  WIKIPIDEA
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2.S100A4 A
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