Sunday, May 5, 2013

JAMA Updates

"In the United States, there was a substantial decrease in mortality rates over time among children and adolescents initiating ESKD treatment with dialysis between 1990 and 2010. Further research is needed to determine the specific factors responsible for this decrease."
*Antiplatelet agents reduce myocardial infarction but increase major bleeding. Risks may outweigh benefits among people with low annual risks of cardiovascular events, including those with early stages of CKD who do not have clinically-evident occlusive cardiovascular disease. (PALMER ET AL)
*Although antioxidant therapy does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause death or major cardiovascular events in people with CKD, it is possible that some benefit may be present, particularly in those on dialysis. However, the small size and generally suboptimal quality of the included studies highlighted the need for sufficiently powered studies to confirm this possibility. Current evidence suggests that antioxidant therapy in predialysis CKD patients may prevent progression to ESKD; this finding was however based on a very small number of events. Further studies with longer follow-up are needed for confirmation. Appropriately powered studies are needed to reliably assess the effects of antioxidant therapy in people with CKD.    JUN ET AL

*Pigeon heart mitochondria produce H(2)O(2) at a maximal rate of about 20nmol/min per mg of protein. BOVERIS ET AL

* Food restriction (FR) is a well-recognized method of extending mean and maximum longevity of rodents, but the mode of its action remains to be uncovered. This article reviews the effect of FR on the physical-chemical properties and lipid peroxidizability of cellular membranes. FR prevents the age-dependent increase in microviscosity and peroxidizability of cellular membranes. It has been suggested that a decrease in the body temperature occurring in undernourished animals may play a fundamental role in the process. Indeed, the lowering of average body temperature occurring in FR animals may induce a modification in membrane lipid composition, stimulating the cells to counteract the rigidifying effect of lower temperature. Thus, membranes are maintained in a proper functional state by a mechanism similar to that found in poikilotherm animals.   AGE ET AL

*All cellular membranes are especially vulnerable to oxidation due to their high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These processes combine to produce changes in the biophysical properties of membranes that can have profound effects on the activity of membrane-bound proteins. This review deals with aspects for lipid peroxidation of biological membranes in general, but with some emphasis on changes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which arise most prominently in membranes and have been studied extensively in our laboratory. The article provides current information on the effect of melatonin on biological membranes, changes in fluidity, fatty acid composition and lipid-protein modifications during the lipid peroxidation process of photoreceptor membranes and modulation of gene expression by the hormone and its preventive effects on adriamycin-induced lipid peroxidation

The ability of melatonin to counteract lipid peroxidation in biological membranes.

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